Enzyme engineering and recombinant enzyme technology

Enzyme engineering or protein engineering is the process of designing proteins or enzymes by changing the sequence of amino acids through recombinant DNA mutation. Directed revolution and rational design are the two techniques used in enzyme engineering or protein designing in the process of drug discovery.

Enzymes are large biological molecules responsible for the thousands of metabolic processes that sustain life. They can speed up the reaction and cut back the activation energy required to start the reaction. Without them, most of the reactions would not occur with a suitable efficiency. Most enzymes are proteins, although some catalytic RNA molecules have been identified. Enzyme activity can be affected by other molecules as well. Inhibitors are molecules that decrease enzyme activity, while activators have the opposite function. Temperature, pressure, chemical environment and the concentration of substance can also affect the enzyme’s activity.

 

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